Real property - Land, buildings and whatever is attached or affixed to the land. Generally synonymous with the words “real estate.”
Reasonable Doubt - An accused person is entitled to acquittal if, in the minds of the jury, his or her guilt has not bee proved beyond a “reasonable doubt;” that state of minds of jurors in which they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction as to the truth of the charge.
Reasonable Person - A phrase used to denote a hypothetical person who exercises qualities of attention, knowledge, intelligence, and judgment that society requires of its members for the protection of their own interests and the interests of others. Thus, the test of negligence is based on either a failure to do something that a reasonable person, guided by considerations that ordinarily regulate conduct, would do, or on the doing of something that a reasonable and prudent (wise) person would not do.
Rebut - Evidence disproving other evidence previously given or reestablishing the reliability of challenged evidence.
Recognizance - An obligation entered into before a court whereby the recognizor acknowledges that he/she will do a specific act required by law.
Record - All the documents and evidence plus transcripts of oral proceedings in a case.
Recuse - The process by which a judge is disqualified from hearing a case, or his or her own motion or upon the objection of either party.
Re-direct Examination - Opportunity to present rebuttal evidence after one’s evidence has been subjected to cross-examination.
Redress - To set right; to remedy; to compensate; to remove the causes of a grievance.
Referee - A person to whom the court refers a pending case to take testimony, hear the parties, and report back to the court. A referee is an officer with judicial powers who serves as an arm of the court.
Rehearing - Another hearing of a civil or criminal case by the same court in which the case was originally heard.
Remand - To send a dispute back to the court where it was originally heard. Usually it is an appellate court that remands a case for proceedings in the trial court consistent with the appellate court’s ruling.
Remedy - Legal or judicial means by which a right or privilege is enforced or the violation of a right or privilege is prevented, redressed, or compensated.
Remittitur - The reduction by a judge of the damages awarded by a jury.
Reply - The Response by a party to charges raised in a pleading by the other party.
Request for Admission - Written statements of facts concerning a case which are submitted to an adverse party and which that party must admit or deny; a discovery device.
Request for Production - A direction or command served upon another party for production of specified documents for review with respect to a suit; a discovery device.
Rescission - The unmaking or undoing of a contract; repeal.
Resolution - The formal adoption of a motion.
Respondent - The person against whom an appeal is taken; the party responding to certain petitions.
Rest - A party is said to “rest” or “rest its case” when it has presented all the evidence it intends to offer.
Restitution - Act of restoring anything to its rightful owner; the act of restoring someone to an economic position he/she enjoyed before he/she suffered a loss.
Retainer - Act of the client in employing the attorney or counsel, and also denotes the fee which the client pays when he or she retains the attorney to act for them.
Return - A report to a judge by police on the implementation of an arrest or search warrant. Also, a report to a judge in reply to a subpoena, civil or criminal.
Reverse - An action of a higher court in setting aside or revoking a lower court’s decision.
Reversible Error - A procedural error during a trial or hearing sufficiently harmful to justify reversing the judgment of a lower court.
Revoke - To cancel or nullify a legal document.
Robbery - Felonious taking of another’s property, from his or her person or immediate presence and against his or her will, by means of force or fear.
Rules - Established standards, guides, or regulations set up by authority.
Rules of Evidence - Standards governing whether evidence in a civil or criminal case is admissible.